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Storm surge could cost in the order of trillions by Many developing countries are more vulnerable and less able to respond to the effects of sea level rise, which, like the effects on agriculture, could add to overall geopolitical instability. Compared to other regions, Asian countries exhibit the highest population exposed to river flooding; however, developed regions, particularly Miami, New York, New Orleans, Osaka-Kobe, Tokyo, and Amsterdam, are among the most exposed to flooding in terms of assets.

Lastly, long-term prospects for sea level rise become much worse when looking beyond the end of the century. Population exposed left and assets exposed right to sea-level rise, storm surge and subsidence by country. These organizations above all work on environmental issues, though many cover other topics as well.

INTRODUCTION

This list is undoubtedly incomplete; please contact us to suggest additions or corrections. Email address:. Climate Change. What the experts worry about Food production is intimately linked to the climate. Recommended References. FAQ U. Environment Programme : Program that works towards assessing environmental conditions, developing environmental instruments and strengthening institutions for the management of the environment. World Meteorlogical Organization : Specialized agency of the UN that is the authoritative voice on issues related to the environment U.

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life in the late 21st century Manual

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What is responsible for the increase of the world population from now on is not a widening of the the base, but a fill up of the population above the base. Not children will be added to the world population, but people in working age and old age. The demographic structure of a country is reshaped so that the proportion of people in working age rises and that of the dependent young generation falls.

The demographic dividend can result in a rise of productive contributions and a growing economy. You can find this content here. In there were 2. Now in , there are 7. By the end of the century the UN expects a global population of This visualization of the population pyramid makes it possible to understand this enormous global transformation. Population pyramids visualize the demographic structure of a population. The width represents the size of the population of a given age; women on the right and men to the left.

The bottom layer represents the number of newborns and above it you find the numbers of older cohorts. Represented in this way the population structure of societies with high mortality rates resembled a pyramid — this is how this famous type of visualization got its name.


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In the darkest blue you see the pyramid that represents the structure of the world population in Two factors are responsible for the pyramid shape in An increasing number of births broadened the base layer of the population pyramid and a continuously high risk of death throughout life is evident by the pyramid narrowing towards the top.

There were many newborns relative to the number of people at older ages. The narrowing of the pyramid just above the base is testimony to the fact that more than 1-in-5 children born in died before they reached the age of five. Through shades of blue and green the same visualization shows the population structure over the last decades up to You see that in each subsequent decade the population pyramid was fatter than before — in each decade more people of all ages were added to the world population.

If you look at the green pyramid for you see that the narrowing above the base is much less strong than back in ; the child mortality rate fell from 1-in-5 in to fewer than 1-in today.

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In comparing and we see that the number of children born has increased — 97 million in to million today — and that the mortality of children decreased at the same time. The base of the future population structure is narrower. We are at a turning point in global population history.

Between and today it was a widening of the entire pyramid that was responsible for the increase of the world population. Not children will be added to the world population, but people of working age and old age. The number of children born will remain as high as it is today, but as global health is improving and mortality is falling these children will live longer. The final step that will end rapid population growth.

This is now happening at a global scale. For every child younger than 15 there were 1. Richer countries have benefited from this transition in the last decades and are now facing the demographic problem of an increasingly larger share of retired people that are not contributing to the labor market. In the coming decades it will be the poorer countries that can benefit from this demographic dividend. The change from to today and the projections to show a world population that is becoming healthier.

When the top of the pyramid becomes wider and looks less like a pyramid and instead becomes more box-shaped, the population lives through younger ages with very low risk of death and dies at an old age. The demographic structure of a healthy population at the final stage of the demographic transition is the box shape that we see for the entire world for The United Nations projects that world population growth will slow significantly over the course of the 21st century, coming close to its peak at But how is this growth distributed across the world?

How does the world look in compared to today? In this chart we see the global population split by region. The striking change between now and is the expected growth in the African population. Today, its population is around 1. Over the past 50 years Asia experienced rapid population growth.


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  8. Today its population stands at around 4. You can read more about the driving force behind these demographic changes here. By the end of the century, more than 8 out of every 10 people in the world will live in Asia or Africa. North, Central and South America, and Oceania, are projected to also see a rise in population this century — but this growth will be much more modest relative to growth in Africa. Europe is the only region where population is expected to fall — today its population stands at around million; by this is projected to fall to million.

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    These changes will bring new opportunities and challenges. Extreme poverty, for example, is expected to become increasingly concentrated in Africa in the decades which follow. This will represent a major shift from the century before.

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    But China is soon to be overtaken by India. In the chart below we see historic and projected population by country, spanning from through to Projections are always associated with a degree of uncertainty and this means the crossing point could be a few years earlier or later. Rapidly declining fertility rates — from an average of 6 children down to 2. In the map below we see country populations across the world through to the year By clicking on any country you can see how its population has changed since , and its projections over the 21st century. Global population growth has slowed down markedly since the peak in the s.

    This map shows the growth rate by country at the peak of global population growth in By moving the time slider you can explore how growth rates around the world have changed over time. In the entry on global population growth we are explaining how births, deaths, and migration are driving population growth. The data entry on past world population growth discusses the demographic transition as the central concept that explains why rapid population growth is a temporary phenomenon. The decline of fertility rates on the other hand, — the number of children per woman — reduces population growth.

    The global average fertility rate was 5 children per woman until the end of the s and has halved since then. The visualization shows the total fertility rate by the level of development and includes the UN projections through The fertility rate of the world was still at 5 children per woman until the mids. Since then the fertility rate has halved and is today below 2. As health is rapidly improving around the world, life expectancy is also increasing rapidly.

    You can read more about life expectancy at the our life expectancy data entry. In the past mortality rates were so high that they kept population growth in check. This is not the case in the 21st century. This correlation is surprising to many: Child mortality is inversely correlated with population growth.

    webmail.amosautomotive.com/zithromax-antibiotic-best-price-shipping-to-italy.php Where child mortality is high the population grows fast.